The most common form of diabetes, caused by a deficiency of the pancreatic hormone insulin, which results in a failure to metabolize sugars and starch. Sugars accumulate in the blood and urine, and the byproducts of alternative fat metabolism disturb the acid–base balance of the blood, causing a risk of convulsions and coma.
There are 3 main types of Diabetes Mellitus :
♦ Type 1 DM results from the body’s failure to produce enough insulin. This was previously referred to as “insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (IDDM) or “juvenile diabetes”. The very cause is unknown until now.
♦ Type 2 DM begins with insulin resistance, in this condition in which cells fail to respond to insulin properly. And the disease progresses a lack of insulin may also develop.This was previously referred to as “non insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus” (NIDDM) or “adult-onset diabetes”. The first cause is excessive body weight and not enough exercise.
♦ Gestational diabetes, is the 3rd main form and occurs when pregnant women without a previous history of diabetes develop a high blood glucose level.
Prevention of Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is one of the chronic noncommunicable diseases that have increased markedly in this century. The discovery of insulin and some other drugs for lowering hyperglycemia have certainly reduced mortality from acute complications of diabetes and improved the quality of life of many diabetic patients. Now in advances of research into the etiology and natural history of diabetes have increased our knowledge about different types of diabetes to such an extent that primary prevention of diabetes mellitus is becoming a reality. Up to now, few studies have attempted to test measures for primary prevention of diabetes. Therefore,some data supporting the possibility for primary prevention are largely indirect and need to be tested in preventive trials or in community-based prevention programs. We believe that the time is right to start action in populations in which the prevalence of diabetes is known to have clearly increased recently. We recapitulate the evidence that can be used as the scientific basis of primary prevention of diabetes mellitus #DM. by: US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
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