What's in this article?
Syphilis is a sexually transmitted infection. It is caused by a type of bacteria known as Treponema pallidum. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in 2006, more than 36,000 cases of syphilis were reported in the United States. According to statistics from the Mayo Clinic, the rate of syphilis among homosexual men has been rising consistently since 2000.
The first sign of syphilis is a small, painless sore. It can appear on your sexual organs, rectum, or inside your mouth. This sore is called a chancre. Often, people fail to notice it right away.
Syphilis can be tricky to diagnose. An infected person can go years without showing any symptoms. However, the earlier you discover the infection, the better it is. Syphilis that remains untreated for a long period can cause major damage to important organs, like the heart and brain.
Syphilis is only spread through intimate contact. It cannot be transmitted by (for example) sharing a toilet with another person, wearing their clothes, or using their eating utensils.
What Causes Syphilis?
Syphilis is caused by the bacteria Treponema pallidum.
How Common is Syphilis?
Syphilis was once a major public health threat, commonly causing serious long-term health problems such as arthritis, brain damage, and blindness. It defied effective treatment until the late 1940s, when the antibiotic penicillin was first developed.
Syphilis is transmitted from person to person by direct contact with a syphilitic sore, known as a chancre. Chancres occur mainly on the external genitals, vagina, anus, or in the rectum. Chancres also can occur on the lips and in the mouth. Transmission of syphilis occurs during vaginal, anal, or oral sex.
According to the CDC, the rate of new cases of syphilis had plummeted in the 1990’s and in the year 2000 it reached an all time low since reporting began in 1941. However, new cases of syphillis doubled between 2005 and 2013 from 8,724 to 16,663.
Symptoms of Syphilis
Syphilis develops in stages, and symptoms vary with each stage. But the stages may overlap, and symptoms don’t always occur in the same order. You may be infected with syphilis and not notice any symptoms for years.
The primary stage of syphilis occurs shortly after you are infected with the bacteria. It begins with a small and painless, but highly infectious, round sore called a chancre. This sore may appear on or inside your mouth or genitals, wherever the bacteria entered your body.
On average, the sore shows up around three weeks after infection, but it can take between 10 and 90 days. The sore remains for anywhere between two and six weeks.
Syphilis is transmitted by direct contact with a sore. This usually occurs during sexual activity.
During the second stage of syphilis, you may experience skin rashes and a sore throat. The rash will not itch and is usually found on your palms and soles. Some people do not notice the rash before it goes away.
Other symptoms of secondary syphilis may include:
- swollen lymph glands
- weight loss
- hair loss
- aching joints
These symptoms will go away whether or not you receive treatment. However, without treatment you will still be infected.
Secondary syphilis is often mistaken for another condition.
The third stage of syphilis is the latent or hidden stage. The primary and secondary symptoms disappear and you will not have any noticeable symptoms at this stage. However, you will still be infected with syphilis. The secondary symptoms could reappear. You could also remain in this stage for years before progressing to tertiary syphilis.
The last stage of infection is tertiary syphilis. One-third of people who do not receive treatment for syphilis will enter this stage. Tertiary syphilis can occur years or decades after you are infected, and it is very serious. Some potential outcomes of tertiary syphilis include:
- mental illness
- memory loss
- destruction of soft tissue and bone
- neurological disorders (e.g., stroke and meningitis)
- heart disease
- neurosyphilis (brain or spinal cord infection)
Primary and secondary syphilis are easy to treat with a penicillin injection. Penicillin is one of the most widely used antibiotics. It is usually effective in treating syphilis. People that are allergic to penicillin will be treated with a different oral antibiotic, such as tetracycline.
Neurosyphilis sufferers will get daily doses of IV administered penicillin. This will often require a brief hospital stay. Unfortunately, the damage caused by late syphilis cannot be reversed. The bacteria can be killed, but treatment will most likely focus on easing pain and discomfort.
During your treatment, make sure to avoid all sexual contact until all sores on your body are healed and your doctor tells you it is safe to resume sex. If you are sexually active, your partner should be treated as well. You should not resume sexual activity until both of your treatments are complete.