The sigmoid colon (pelvic colon) is the part of the large intestine that is closest to the rectum and anus.
The sigmoid colon begins at the superior aperture of the lesser pelvis, where it is continuous with the iliac colon, and passes transversely across the front of the sacrum to the right side of the pelvis. (The name sigmoid aptly means S-shaped.)
Sigmoid colon, a terminal section of the large intestine that connects the descending colon to the rectum; its function is to store fecal wastes until they are ready to leave the body. The sigmoid colon derives its name from the fact that it is curved in the form of an S (Greek sigma: σ). Its size depends upon the amount of waste material in it, but when contracted its diameter is only about one inch (2.5 centimetres).
It then curves on itself and turns toward the left to reach the middle line at the level of the third piece of the sacrum, where it bends downward and ends in the rectum.
Its function is to expel solid and gaseous waste from the gastrointestinal tract. The curving path it takes toward the anus allows it to store gas in the superior arched portion, enabling the colon to expel gas without excreting faeces simultaneously.
- Antidiarrheal agents: Various medicines can slow down diarrhea, reducing discomfort. Reducing diarrhea does not slow down recovery for most diarrheal illnesses.
- Stool softeners: Over-the-counter and prescription medicines can soften the stool; stool softeners can affect constipation, but not always.
- Laxatives: Medicines and herbs and some salts can stimulate the bowel muscles or bring more water into the bowel to relieve constipation. Some laxatives are not safe with long term use.
- Enema: A term for pushing liquid into the colon through the anus. Enemas can deliver medicines to treat constipation or other colon conditions.
- Colonoscopy: Using tools on the tip of the endoscope, a doctor can treat certain colon conditions. Bleeding, polyps, or cancer might be treated by colonoscopy.
- Polypectomy: During colonoscopy, removal of a colon polyp is called polypectomy.
- Colon surgery: Using open or laparoscopic surgery, part or all of the colon may be removed (colectomy). This may be done for severe bleeding, cancer, or ulcerative colitis.
- Anti-inflammatory medicines: Various drugs can slow down immune system function, easing symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.
- Antibiotics: Medicines can kill bacteria in the colon, used to cure some cases of colitis. Antibiotics may also be used for attacks of inflammatory bowel disease.
- Probiotics: Microbes are important for the health of the colon. Probiotics are supplements of healthy microbes which may have benefit for some conditions like Crohn’s colitis.